In the government work report set out this year's top ten tasks, the third major task is to "adhere to innovation to lead the development, cultivate and expand new kinetic energy". This is also a hot topic of discussion among representatives and members of the National People's Congress and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference this year. How to nurture and strengthen new kinetic energy? How can we strengthen the bonds of scientific and technological achievement? Let's hear from Minister of Science and Technology Wang Zhigang and the delegates to the two sessions.
Answer by Wang Zhigang, Minister of Science and Technology: What are the considerations of the Ministry of Science and Technology in promoting the transformation of scientific and technological achievements? How to build a strong national science and technology innovation system in the future, and how to solve the problem of difficulty in transforming scientific and technological achievements?
Wang Zhigang.Promoting the development of high technology and improving the capacity and level of development is an ongoing task for the entire scientific and technological community and all sectors of society. The transformation of scientific and technological achievements is our established policy. General Secretary Xi Jinping mentioned that science and technology should be "three oriented", oriented to the world science and technology frontier, oriented to the economic and social development of the main battlefield, oriented to the country's major needs, major strategies. In such "three oriented" to promote the process, the transformation of scientific and technological achievements is one of the due, must do a good lesson. The 19th CPC National Congress put forward requirements, for example, to build a modern economic system, the first is the real economy, the second is scientific and technological innovation, the third is human resources, the fourth is financial. So, the transformation of scientific and technological achievements is all relevant in this section. The real economy, how can we make the high-tech real economy as a development focus, more sustainable and more competitive. Of course, science and technology innovation itself is such that talent is the mainstay of innovation, and finance also needs innovation. In addition, high-quality development, sustainable development, requires us to do a better job of the environment, to deal with some of the common challenges facing mankind, which all need science and technology innovation.
At the same time, there are many elements of S&T, how do you place them? We consider the scientific and technological achievements themselves as a sufficient condition, and the policies, laws, finance, government services, industry participation, and community support as a necessary condition. In other words, without this sufficient condition, our disruptive industries will not come out. So, the sufficient condition for disruptive industries is the emergence of scientific and technological innovation and scientific and technological achievements, and those that follow are necessary conditions. So, in terms of grasping the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, we first arrive at the outcome, and in terms of the outcome we also have to distinguish its maturity. One state is, just an idea, or just an idea that has just begun to be discussed in the laboratory, it itself is some hypothesis, and no proof, or after proof can not be transformed; there is a kind of already to the time of transformation, can there be transformation of the appropriate body, that is, the so-called technological maturity, we grasp, as the hands of the results and to undertake the results, we must pay attention to this thing, must! It is transformable.
In addition, it is the market mechanism, it must be the market mechanism to promote transformation. The owner of the results, the results of the undertaker, these two are the main body; the government is mainly to improve the policy, build a platform, good service. In this point to say to you, indeed these years we attach more importance to the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, the National People's Congress specifically revised the transformation of scientific and technological achievements law, it should be said that this transformation of the results of the law is very high, in the countries of the transformation of scientific and technological achievements of the law, China this law should be the most preferential and most close to the actual transformation of scientific and technological achievements of scientific and technological personnel of a good law.2017, more than 2,700 university research institutions We see that a good law is very important to promote the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, but also see that this law is really close to China's reality, in line with the wishes of both the owner and the undertaker of scientific and technological achievements.
Next, we also need to make this matter of transformation of scientific and technological achievements a priority. First, the national technology transfer system, technology transfer bases, technology transfer subjects, and technology transfer services should be done well. The second is to promote the construction of a system for the evaluation and management of state-owned assets in line with the transformation of technological achievements. Because it is more of an intangible asset, not a physical asset like land or real estate. Including the recent science and technology board, the purpose is also to promote the development of science and technology-based enterprises, and in the middle there is a lot of content that is also the transformation of technological achievements, but also the intangible assets, the ability to focus on, rather than the flow of capital, the transaction volume as the focus, these are to promote the transformation of results. At the same time, the combination of technology and finance is also very important. If technology is a sufficient condition, finance is a necessary condition. As we know, arguing a mathematical problem, the sufficient conditions are all valid, and the mathematical problem is proved to be over.
National People's Congress, the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Life Sciences President Li Lin proposed: the biggest obstacle to the transformation of scientific and technological achievements is the lack of professional talent team.
Lilin.The main reason for this phenomenon lies, on the one hand, in the inadequate blood transfusion system for professionals in the transformation of scientific and technological achievements and the lack of complex talents who know technology, intellectual property rights, management and the market. In addition, there are obvious deficiencies in the hematopoietic function of the professional platform for transforming talents and the living blood incentive mechanism for the professionals engaged in the transformation of scientific research achievements. Therefore, a multi-pronged approach should be taken to find a solution to this problem from the perspectives of blood transfusion, hematopoiesis and blood activation. It is suggested that, starting from the demand for improving the special skills and service experience of professionals, a cascading training system suitable for personnel at different levels should be established, and on the basis of the establishment of the existing national technology transfer demonstration institutions and other work, efforts should be further strengthened to support professional service organizations to make blood, and at the same time, an effective incentive mechanism for personnel engaged in the transformation of scientific and technological achievements can be established, which can be designed in the relevant systems of the existing science and technology support system. Several aspects of institutional innovation, such as shareholding of service personnel, are effective incentives.
Member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), Executive Vice President of Shanghai Jiaotong University Ding Kueling seems: the transformation of scientific research results is not high, lies in the basic research of universities or research institutes, many do not have the ability to compete in the market.
Ting Kui Ling.Another reason for the low transformation of scientific research results is that many of the basic researches in universities or research institutes are not competitive in the market, and enterprises are not interested in them, so it is naturally difficult to transform them successfully. At the same time, many enterprises also have the problem of lack of innovation ability, and cannot really and effectively push the scientific research results to the market.
The CPPCC National Committee member Ding Kuiling suggested that to coordinate the government, research institutes and social forces, build a platform to promote the maturation of scientific research results: "is not able to around the university, in some science parks inside, can through the government, through the research institutes, as well as social forces, together to build a platform, the results of the maturation of work convergence, so from paper to money, and this bridge is built in the middle."
Cheng Jianping, Secretary of the Party Committee of Beijing Normal University, said: "If the ownership of results is "live", scientific and technological innovation can be "fire".
Cheng Jianping.In his important speech at the 2018 Bicameral Congress, General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed the need to speed up the transformation and application of innovative achievements, and thoroughly beat the hurdles to break the bottlenecks in achieving "one-stop" transformation of technological breakthroughs, product manufacturing, market models and industrial development. This year's government work report also proposed, to promote the reform of science and technology system initiatives on the ground to achieve results, must not let the reform policy remains in words, on paper. What are the bottlenecks that need to be overcome in scientific and technological innovation? A very important point is the low motivation and smoothness of the process of transforming the results. The outstanding factor that affects the enthusiasm and smoothness is the ownership of scientific and technological achievements.
"It's a big waste that less than five of the 100 research results that cost a lot of effort and cost have a chance to form a product and produce benefits." The reason? Cheng Jianping, a member of the committee, analyzed in detail: the process of transforming scientific and technological achievements is complex and takes up a lot of time and energy. And according to China's current regulations, the results of scientific research supported by state funding belong to the state. Universities and research institutes bear the main responsibility for the transformation of state-owned assets, the risk constrains the initiative; researchers do not have ownership of the results, the conversion rate is not counted into the evaluation of the incentive system, so on the one hand, scientific research to meet the market demand awareness is not strong; on the other hand, the lack of enthusiasm for the transformation of results.
Cheng Jianping members are encouraged that the party and state has been to promote the reform of science and technology in the field of "deregulation and obedience", the establishment and improvement of scientific research management mechanism based on the premise of trust to make institutional exploration, a series of innovative exploration, so that the transformation of scientific and technological achievements gradually improve the vitality.
"It is evident that the reform of ownership of scientific research results directly promotes independent innovation. How can we explore the possibility of granting researchers ownership or long-term use rights of scientific and technological achievements in accordance with the spirit of the central document?" Commissioner Cheng Jianping made three suggestions. First, the classification of results is the foundation. We should formulate and improve the classification system of intellectual property rights attribution, and divide the attribution of scientific research results into three categories: scientific and technological results involving national security, national interests and major social and public interests, the intellectual property rights still belong to the relevant units, and the attribution is state-owned; general scientific and technological results, if the unit and the researchers jointly implement the transformation, can be divided according to a certain proportion of agreement, belonging to the common; other results of intellectual property rights can be shared by the researchers. Individual ownership. Secondly, the principle of unity of responsibility is unified. Researchers personally enjoy the property rights of the scientific and technological achievements, patent maintenance fees and other related fees, about the results of the relevant responsibility is also their personal responsibility. Lastly, profit distribution is the guarantee. A profit distribution mechanism should be established to ensure that scientific research institutions "contribute to benefit", and the owners of the results must return a certain percentage of the profit from the transformation of the results to their institutions, and encourage donations, funding and other ways to give back.
"Today's China harbors enormous innovation potential." Commissioner Cheng Jianping is confident, "If this sticking point is broken, we will definitely be able to usher in a vivid situation of all kinds of talent competing and innovation springing up, as the government's work report said."
CPPCC National Committee, Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Automation researcher Yi Jianqiang: the transformation of scientific and technological achievements still have "hedges" to be dismantled.
EJN.The 'Three Steps' for the transfer and transformation of scientific and technological achievements provides a strong guarantee for stimulating the transformation of scientific and technological achievements from the institutional point of view, and we also obviously feel that the transformation of scientific and technological achievements has become smoother. But at the same time, in the specific transformation process, especially in the process of technology transfer and technology quotation, there are still some restrictions on the transformation of the problem.
Many units still need to be assessed for filing. Yi said the current regulations on the management of the assessment of state-owned assets of institutions seriously affect the process of transforming scientific and technological achievements. "Now the transformation of scientific and technological achievements must be evaluated by a third-party evaluation agency to assess the results." He believes that this is not only time-consuming and labor-intensive and does not work to protect state-owned assets.
"It took more than half a year for one of my achievements to go through the assessment and filing process, and I had to pay a considerable fee to the assessor as well as provide various assessment materials." Yi said that the third-party assessment added a huge burden to the scientists and technicians and seriously discouraged them from transforming their technological achievements.
In the first half of this year, Shanghai will build its first incubator and accelerator for financial technology and set up a 5 billion yuan fund for science and innovation, said Hang Yingwei, a deputy to the National People's Congress and party secretary of the Shanghai Science and Innovation Center Construction Office.
The main purpose of setting up the fund is to give full play to our ability of financial services to the real economy, especially the key advantaged industries in Pudong, and to further support and promote them.
Minor message.Along with the relevant national regulations and policies introduced one after another, the enthusiasm of scientific and technological personnel for innovation and creation is constantly stimulated, and the transformation of scientific and technological achievements as a bridge and link between science and technology and the economy, and an important engine of economic development is also constantly exploring and developing, I believe that under the advice and suggestions of representatives from all sides, the transfer of scientific and technological achievements will definitely break the barriers, lead innovation and drive development.
Source: Oriental Satellite Television, Guangming.com, Economic Daily.